Lo siguiente es una copia de un artículo publicado en un diario de la ciudad australiana de Perth, y cito textualmente:
Ernest Hemingway: American Hero or Common War Criminal?
By Frank Schmidt
Ernest Hemingway was justly acclaimed by many for his literary works and detested by an increasing number of more astute individuals as a common war criminal. There is no doubt that he was one of the most outstanding authors of the 20th century. However, he was also a self-declared war criminal.
He was born in Oak Park, IL on July 21, 1899. In his time most writers preferred a somewhat embellished and verbose style of writing. Hemingway divested his sentences of superfluous words. The structure of his texts is short and simple with few adjectives and lack of idiomatic vernacular. Nouns and verbs are as if etched in stone and are constantly repeated. His style is repetitious and is more related to texts in elementary school readers than classic literature. Through his low-down gutter language he made the word “shit” socially acceptable through its frequent use.
Hemingway produced six novels and over fifty short stories in his unique style. His books must have made some impression on the Nobel Prize Committee because in 1954 they awarded him the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Post war Germans have good reason not to honor Hemingway. In 1944 he accompanied American troops in the invasion of Northern France. Always a braggard, by his own admission he killed a great number of disarmed German prisoners-of-war under circumstances for which German soldiers would have been court-marshalled and charged by their own commanders. He wrote about a few of these “heroic deeds” in his letters. Twenty years after his death Scribners & Sons of New York published some of them under the title “Selected Letters 1917-1961.” (nota mia: Scribner Classics, editadas por Carlos Baker– Charles Sribner’s Sons, New York 1981, pp. 672, 697 y son cartas encontradas en la Finca La Vigía en las afueras de la Habana, Cuba, despues de la muerte del Agente Argos)
It is significant, however, that in 1958 in a letter to the executors of his last will and testament he instructed them “It is my wish that none of my letters be published.” In another letter written in 1952 he stated that “They were defamatory, always indecent and often obscene.” The publisher ignored Hemingway’s last will and in the preface of the book remarked only that the “Obscenities did not amount to much.”
A few examples of his tirades against the Germans are quoted from the original edition of his memoirs. On July 31, 1944, he wrote to his fourth wife “Our division killed many Germans and we got some excellent cognac from their armoured vehicles.” Hemingway often boasted about his courage in regard to wounded or disarmed German soldiers. On August 27, 1949 he wrote in retrospect “One day I killed an impudent SS-Kraut. When I told him that I was going to kill him if he even thought of fleeing, the fellow answered “No you’re won’t, because you are afraid to do it and you belong to a breed of degenerates. Besides, its against the Geneva Convention.”
“What a mistake you made brother” I told him and fired three shots into his stomach. When he fell to his knees I shot him in the head so that his brain came out through his mouth. In the same letter he wrote about another “glorious deed” in regard to a captured SS-man that he had interrogated who, according to Hemingway spoke a wonderful English. “He answered my questions succinctly and intelligently. He called me Herr Captain. I wore no rank insignia. When he thought it was not high enough he raised it to Herr Colonel I probably would have made it to General, but we had no time. Afterwards we chased them away (killed them) because we knew what their insignia stood for.
Hemingway often bragged about the number of (disarmed) German soldiers he allegedly killed. In a letter dated July 9, 1960 he wrote “I killed about 122 Germans, not counting the uncertain ones. The last one left me with a bad feeling. He was a young non-combatant soldier wearing a German uniform. He was fleeing on a bicycle in the direction of Aachen. I said to my companion “Let me take this one.” The boy was about as old as my son Patrick. I shot him through the spine and the bullet came out through his liver.
(Nota mía: este párrafo contiene una buena cantidad de inexactitudes, ver nota al final del párrafo)
After that incident Hemingway was no longer able to continue with his “heroic deeds” because he was captured by the Germans and spent the rest of the war as a prisoner-of-war at Hammelsburg and Nuremberg. It is not known whether the Germans knew about his crimes. In any case he was treated correctly and was released in May 1945 when the war ended. (Nota mía: fué su hijo Jack Hemingway quien estuvo internado en un campo de concentración, como operative de la OSS –precursora de la CIA- el hijo del Agente Argos se lanzo en paracaídas tras las líneas enemigas en Francia, Fue herido en combate y estuvo internado en el campo de Mosberg hasta mayo de 1945. Su padre Ernest Hemingway (Argo) se encontraba en esos momentos en Francia, tras las líneas aliadas, no las alemanas, y fabricó la historia de que estaba en el primer grupo de libertadores de la capital francesa y que liberó al hotel Ritz con sus propias acciones, en realidad se encontraba asignado como reportero en la retaguardia de las tropas americanas)
Hemingway’s conduct during the war proves that he was a very unscrupulous fellow. By his own admission he took great pleasure in killing “Krauts”. It is ironic that with very few exceptions the Germans in the West treated their prisoners according to the Geneva Convention, i.e. far more correctly than the Allies. (Nota mía: Su hijo fue tratado como prisionero de guerra por los alemanes, con bastante brutalidad. Además, también es irónico que Argo se refiera a Marlene Dietrich como Kraut (en varias cartas del volumen citado) que era un término despectivo contra los alemanes en la época de la segunda guerra mundial, ya que se suponía que amara a la Dietrich).
Personal remarks by the author of this article: In the mid 1920s Hemingway was a reporter at the Toronto Star, Canada’s largest newspaper. Gordon Sinclair, was cub reporter at the Star during Hemingway’s tenure. In the mid 1930s Gordon traveled throughout Asia and wrote articles about it for the paper. I was a 18 year old newsboy and sold papers on the street in front of the Star Building, and often spoke to Gordon about his travels which were fascinating.
After WWII Gordon became one of Canada’s most prominent radio and TV personalities. It was not until the 1950s when I met Gordon again at the CFRB radio station booth at the Canadian National Exhibition. I had my six year old son with me and introduced myself to Gord. He said that he rembered me, and shook my hand. I told him that I had just read his friend Hemingway’s book “The Old Man and the Sea.” A bit agitated, Gord who was never shy about expressing his opinions shot back, “Hemingway was never my friend” he said “This arrogant bully had no friends at the Star. He was then and is today an insolent braggard who is devoid of any human feelings.” An opinion shared by many others.
In his final years Hemingway was mentally ill. Some say he was like that all his life. He ended his life by shooting himself on July 2, 1961 in his home in Ketchum, Iowa.
One cannot deny the success of Hemingway’s books. Like his life they are filled with wars, brawls, sport, travel and love affairs. Because he was on the side of the victors he was never punished for his war crimes. Conclusively, by his suicide he finally punished himself for his criminal outrages.
La famosa editorial neoyorkina Scribners & Sons of New publicó una colección de cartas del Agente Argo (“Selected Letters 1917-1961”) a varias personas, y uno se pregunta como es posible que los editores hayan sido “selectivos” a la hora de publicar estos documentos de valor histórico y qué se dejó fuera y por qué. Hay una acusada semejanza con la descripción que hace Guevara de sus propias ejecuciones y no se sabe si ambos intercambiaron este tipo de experiencia durante alguno de sus encuentros frente al paredón de fusilamientos en Cuba. Tenían en común la cobardía, y la proclividad a ejecutar sus enemigos siempre y cuando estuvieran desarmados, prisioneros, y atados. No hay documentación alguna de muestras de valor por parte de ninguno de estos dos personajes en situaciones de combate, siempre como combatientes irregulares, ajenos a las disciplinas y leyes que rigen las operaciones de un ejército, como buenos agentes de Moscú infiltrados en zonas de guerra.
En fin, que las cartas autoincriminatorias fueron encontradas nada más y nada menos que en Cuba, donde el régimen las archivó hasta que se hizo público que el FBI había mantenido abierto un expediente sobre Argo desde su participación en la guerra civil española hasta su muerte.
Sobre las acciones del Agente Argo en Europa se da alguna luz en este documento, escrito por Nicholas Reynolds “Ernest Hemingway, Wartime Spy”.
Otra vez, la historia ha sido torcida para favorecer a un espía, a un abusador y criminal, a un maltratador de mujeres y a un tipo que despreciaba al resto de los seres humanos, juzgando como escribía sobre personas de otras nacionalidades, ya fueran estos europeos –españoles, franceses, italianos y alemanes, fundamentalmetne, raro que no se metió con los rusos ¿cierto?- y con su condescendiente tratamiento –velado racismo o tolerancia- hacia los cubanos. No hay otro sentimiento que el desprecio y la indiferencia cuando se trata de tomar el espectáculo de las carnicerías de la guerra civil española y de los primeros días de la llamada revolución cubana. En fin, un criminal de guerra, el Agente Argo, al cual la academia y la prensa norteamericana siguen glorificando. El Che Guevara Argentino tuvo un gran maestro y mentor en el Che Guevara Americano. No llamo al primero “El Ernest Hemingway Argentino”, porque eso significaría darle valor sus balbuceos pseudoliterarios. Pero la criminalidad es la misma, sin duda alguna.